Main Volume 1A Part 1

Main Volume 1A Part 1 (pdf)

Contents Pages
Executive summary
Certification
Glossary and abbreviations
1 Introduction 1-1
1.1 Project overview 1-1
1.2 Project location 1-4
1.3 Project features 1-4
1.4 Benefits of the project 1-7
1.5 Purpose of this environmental impact statement 1-8
1.6 Structure of this environmental impact statement 1-8
1.7 Directions used in this environmental impact statement 1-9
2 Assessment process 2-1
2.1 Approval framework 2-1
2.1.1 Environmental Planning and Assessment Act 1979 2-1
2.1.2 Environmental Planning and Assessment Regulation 2000 2-1
2.2 Environmental planning instruments 2-3
2.2.1 State environmental planning policies 2-3
2.2.2 Local environmental plans 2-3
2.3 Other legislation 2-4
2.3.1 NSW legislation 2-4
2.3.2 Commonwealth legislation 2-5
3 Strategic context and project need 3-1
3.1 Strategic planning and policy framework 3-1
3.1.1 NSW 2021: A Plan to Make NSW Number One 3-1
3.1.2 State Infrastructure Strategy 3-2
3.1.3 NSW Long Term Transport Master Plan 3-3
3.1.4 Mode specific transport strategies 3-4
3.1.5 A Plan for Growing Sydney 3-6
3.1.6 NSW Freight and Ports Strategy 3-8
3.1.7 Parramatta Road Urban Transformation Program 3-8
3.1.8 WestConnex Business Case 3-9
3.1.9 Our Cities Our Future – A National Urban Policy 3-10
3.1.10 Alignment with other national strategic planning documents 3-11
3.2 Why the project is needed 3-11
3.2.1 Regional context 3-11
3.2.2 Existing road network conditions 3-12
3.2.3 Job creation in Western Sydney 3-13
3.2.4 Freight, commercial and business services 3-14
3.2.5 Parramatta Road urban renewal 3-15
3.2.6 Transport improvements in the Parramatta Road corridor 3-15
3.3 Project objectives 3-16
3.4 Summary 3-17
4 Project development and alternatives 4-1
4.1 History of the M4 East and WestConnex 4-1
4.1.2 M5 East Motorway 4-3
4.1.3 Connection between the M4 and M5 East 4-3
4.1.4 WestConnex and M4 East 4-3
4.2 Strategic alternatives 4-4
4.2.1 Alternative 1 – Base case or ‘do nothing/do minimum’ 4-5
4.2.2 Alternative 2 – Improvements to the existing arterial road network 4-5
4.2.3 Alternative 3 – Investment in public transport and rail freight improvements 4-7
4.2.4 Alternative 4 – Demand management 4-10
4.2.5 Alternative 5 – Extension of the M4 as part of the WestConnex scheme 4-10
4.2.6 Preferred strategic alternative 4-11
4.3 Motorway options 4-12
4.3.1 Earlier options development 4-12
4.3.2 Tunnel corridor options 4-15
4.3.3 Number of lanes within tunnels 4-15
4.3.4 Preferred motorway option 4-16
4.4 Interchange options 4-16
4.4.1 Western tunnel portals 4-16
4.4.2 M4 westbound access options 4-19
4.4.3 Concord interchange 4-20
4.4.4 Wattle Street (City West Link) interchange 4-23
4.4.5 Parramatta Road interchange 4-25
4.5 Design development of ancillary facilities 4-27
4.5.1 Ventilation system design 4-27
4.5.2 Ventilation facility locations 4-29
4.5.3 Emergency smoke exhaust facility 4-31
4.5.4 Fresh air supply facility 4-31
4.5.5 Motorway control centre 4-32
4.6 Construction methodology development 4-33
4.6.1 Tunnel construction methods 4-33
4.6.2 Spoil disposal 4-34
5 Project description 5-1
5.1 The project 5-2
5.2 Design criteria 5-5
5.2.1 Design standards 5-5
5.2.2 Urban design principles and objectives 5-5
5.2.3 Landscape framework 5-6
5.3 Project footprint 5-6
5.4 Tunnels (continues in part 2) 5-7
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Main Volume 1A Part 2

Main Volume 1A Part 2 (pdf)

Contents Pages
5.4 Tunnels (continued from part 1) 5-14
5.5 Road treatments at intersections and interchanges 5-20
5.5.1 Homebush Bay Drive interchange 5-20
5.5.2 Powells Creek M4 on-ramp 5-22
5.5.3 Concord Road interchange 5-22
5.5.4 Wattle Street (City West Link) interchange 5-25
5.5.5 Parramatta Road interchange 5-29
5.6 Ventilation system 5-31
5.6.1 Overview 5-31
5.6.2 Ventilation facilities 5-31
5.6.3 Operating modes 5-35
5.7 Other ancillary facilities 5-36
5.7.1 Motorway operations complex 5-36
5.7.2 Incident response centre 5-38
5.7.3 Emergency and incident management facilities 5-38
5.8 Other project elements 5-40
5.8.1 Bridges 5-40
5.8.2 Cuttings and embankments 5-43
5.8.3 Drainage and operational water quality 5-43
5.8.4 Lighting, roadside furniture and signage 5-45
5.8.5 Tolling gantries, communication and control systems 5-46
5.8.6 Noise barriers and low noise pavement 5-46
5.8.7 Provision for smart motorway infrastructure 5-51
5.9 Surface road network changes 5-51
5.9.1 Changes to the existing road network 5-51
5.9.2 Pedestrian and cyclist facilities 5-52
5.9.3 Public transport (continues in part 3) 5-53

Main Volume 1A Part 3

Main Volume 1A Part 3 (pdf)

Contents Pages
5.9.3 Public transport (continued from part 2) 5-54
5.10 Utility services 5-55
5.10.1 Electricity 5-55
5.10.2 Water 5-56
5.11 Property access and acquisition 5-57
6 Construction work 6-1
6.1 Construction strategy 6-2
6.2 Construction program 6-2
6.3 Construction footprint 6-3
6.4 Construction methodology 6-12
6.4.1 Enabling works 6-13
6.4.2 Tunnelling 6-13
6.4.3 Surface earthworks and structures 6-14
6.4.4 Bridge works 6-15
6.4.5 Drainage 6-16
6.4.6 Pavement 6-17
6.4.7 Operational ancillary facilities 6-17

Main Volume 1A Part 4

Main Volume 1A Part 4 (pdf)

Contents Pages
6.5 Construction ancillary facilities 6-19
6.5.1 Overview 6-19
6.5.2 Homebush Bay Drive civil site (C1) 6-21
6.5.3 Pomeroy Street civil site (C2) 6-22
6.5.4 Underwood Road civil and tunnel site (C3) 6-25
6.5.5 Powells Creek civil site (C4) 6-27
6.5.6 Concord Road civil and tunnel site (C5) 6-29
6.5.7 Cintra Park tunnel site (C6) 6-31
6.5.8 Northcote Street tunnel site (C7) 6-34
6.5.9 Eastern ventilation facility site (C8) 6-36
6.5.10 Wattle Street and Walker Avenue civil site (C9) 6-38
6.5.11 Parramatta Road civil site (C10) 6-40
6.6 Traffic management and access 6-42
6.6.1 Changes to local roads 6-42
6.6.2 Changes to pedestrian and cycle routes 6-44
6.6.3 Changes to bus stops 6-47
6.6.4 Access routes and vehicle numbers 6-47
6.6.5 Construction workforce parking 6-48
6.7 Construction workforce numbers and work hours 6-50
6.7.1 Construction workforce 6-50
6.7.2 Construction work hours 6-51
6.8 Plant and equipment 6-53
6.9 Spoil and waste management 6-55
6.9.1 Spoil and waste generation 6-55
6.9.2 Spoil disposal hierarchy 6-56
6.9.3 Spoil reuse and disposal sites 6-56
6.9.4 Spoil haulage routes 6-57
6.9.5 Spoil management strategy 6-62
6.10 Construction resource use 6-63
6.10.1 Construction materials 6-63
6.10.2 Construction energy use 6-63
6.10.3 Construction water use and management 6-64

Main Volume 1A Part 5

Main Volume 1A Part 5 (pdf)

Contents Pages
7.1 Community and stakeholder engagement overview 7-2
7.2 Consultation objectives 7-3
7.3 Consultation process and activities to date 7-3
7.3.1 Consultation undertaken before preparation of the EIS 7-3
7.3.2 Consultation undertaken during preparation of the EIS 7-4
7.3.3 Aboriginal cultural heritage consultation 7-16
7.4 Summary of issues raised 7-16
7.4.1 Issues raised by government agencies 7-16
7.4.2 Issues raised by local government 7-23
7.4.3 Issues raised by the community 7-32
7.5 Design considerations in response to early feedback 7-38
7.6 Future consultation 7-54
7.6.1 Subsurface acquisition consultation 7-54
7.6.2 Consultation during the exhibition of the EIS 7-54
7.6.3 Consultation during construction stages 7-55
8 Traffic and transport 8-1
8.1 Assessment methodology 8-2
8.1.1 Determine existing and future traffic volumes 8-2
8.1.2 Assess construction impacts 8-2
8.1.3 Assess operational impacts 8-3
8.2 Existing environment 8-3
8.2.1 Route description 8-3
8.2.2 Traffic volumes and patterns 8-6
8.2.3 Existing road network performance 8-9
8.2.4 Public and active transport 8-12
8.3 Assessment of construction impacts 8-13
8.3.1 Construction traffic volumes and routes 8-13
8.3.2 Local road network impacts 8-14
8.3.3 Road and intersection performance 8-16
8.3.4 Access changes 8-18
8.3.5 Road safety 8-18
8.3.6 Public transport 8-18
8.3.7 Pedestrians and cyclists 8-19
8.4 Assessment of operation impacts 8-19
8.4.1 Road and intersection performance 8-19
8.4.2 Public transport 8-31
8.4.3 Pedestrian and cyclist facilities 8-32
8.4.4 Fulfilment of project objectives 8-32
8.5 Assessment of cumulative impacts 8-34
8.5.1 Construction 8-34
8.5.2 Operation 8-34
8.6 Management of impacts 8-34
8.6.1 Project design features that manage impacts 8-34
8.6.2 Road network optimisation 8-35
8.6.3 Environmental management measures 8-35
9 Air quality 9-1
9.1 Introduction 9-1
9.2 Assessment approach 9-3
9.2.1 Overview 9-3
9.2.2 Terminology 9-3
9.2.3 Air quality criteria 9-4
9.2.4 NSW assessment criteria 9-6
9.2.5 Modelling scenarios 9-9
9.2.6 Accuracy and conservatism 9-11
9.2.7 Model selection and validation 9-12
9.2.8 Sensitivity tests 9-13
9.3 Construction air quality assessment methodology 9-13
9.4 Operational assessment methodology 9-15
9.4.1 In-tunnel assessment methodology 9-15
9.4.2 External air quality assessment methodology 9-16
9.5 Existing environment 9-22
9.5.1 Terrain and land use 9-22
9.5.2 Climate 9-22
9.5.3 Meteorology 9-23
9.5.4 Emissions 9-27
9.5.5 General characteristics of Sydney air quality 9-29
9.5.6 Data from existing monitoring sites in the study area 9-33
9.5.7 Project-specific monitoring 9-34
9.6 Assessment of air quality impacts during construction 9-35
9.6.1 Significance of risks 9-35
9.7 Assessment of air quality impacts during operation 9-35
9.7.1 In-tunnel air quality 9-35
9.7.2 Assessment of ambient air quality impacts 9-44
9.7.3 Carbon monoxide (maximum rolling eight-hour mean) 9-47
9.7.4 Nitrogen dioxide (annual mean) 9-49
9.7.5 PM10 (annual mean) 9-56
9.7.6 PM10 (maximum 24-hour mean) 9-62
9.7.7 PM2.5 (annual mean) 9-68
9.7.8 Air toxics 9-70
9.8 Assessment of cumulative impacts 9-72
9.8.1 Results for expected traffic scenarios 9-72
9.9 Management of impacts 9-77
9.9.1 Construction impacts 9-77
9.9.2 Operational impacts 9-81
9.9.3 Monitoring of external air quality 9-84
10 Noise and vibration 10-1
10.1 Assessment methodology 10-1
10.1.1 Study area 10-2
10.1.2 Noise sensitive receivers (continues in part 6) 10-2

Main Volume 1A Part 6

Main Volume 1A Part 6 (pdf)

Contents Pages
10.1.2 Noise sensitive receivers (continued from part 5) 10-3
10.1.3 Background noise monitoring 10-5
10.1.4 Policy framework 10-5
10.1.5 Noise modelling 10-6
10.2 Existing environment 10-7
10.3 Assessment criteria 10-9
10.3.1 Construction noise 10-9
10.3.2 Construction vibration 10-12
10.3.3 Operational noise 10-15
10.4 Assessment of construction impacts 10-20
10.4.1 Construction activity noise 10-20
10.4.2 Ground-borne noise 10-32
10.4.3 Construction traffic noise 10-33
10.4.4 Construction vibration 10-34
10.4.5 Blasting 10-35
10.5 Assessment of operational impacts 10-36
10.5.1 Road traffic noise assessment 10-36
10.5.2 Operational ancillary facilities 10-42
10.6 Assessment of cumulative impacts 10-43
10.6.1 Construction 10-43
10.6.2 Operation 10-43
10.7 Management of impacts 10-43
10.7.1 Project design features that manage impacts 10-43
10.7.2 Environmental management measures 10-43
11 Human health 11-1
11.1 Assessment methodology 11-1
11.1.1 Method of assessment 11-1
11.1.2 Study area 11-2
11.1.3 Field survey and analysis 11-3
11.2 Existing environment 11-3
11.2.1 Population profile 11-3
11.2.2 Existing health of population 11-6
11.2.3 Existing air quality 11-6
11.2.4 Existing noise and vibration 11-6
11.3 Assessment of construction impacts 11-7
11.3.1 Air quality 11-7
11.3.2 Noise and vibration 11-7
11.4 Assessment of operational impacts 11-8
11.4.1 Air quality 11-8
11.4.2 Assessment of regulatory worst case scenarios 11-16
11.4.3 Assessment of in-tunnel air quality impacts 11-19
11.4.4 Noise and vibration 11-23
11.5 Assessment of social impacts on health 11-24
11.6 Changes in noise 11-26
11.7 Changes in community 11-27
11.8 Assessment of cumulative impacts 11-28
11.9 Management of impacts 11-28
12 Property and land use 12-1
12.1 Assessment methodology 12-1
12.1.1 Overview 12-1
12.1.2 Residual land assessment criteria 12-2
12.2 Existing environment 12-2
12.2.1 Regional context 12-2
12.2.2 Local context 12-3
12.2.3 Potential future development 12-13
12.3 Assessment of construction impacts 12-14
12.3.1 Property and land use impacts 12-14
12.3.2 Property access impacts 12-33
12.3.3 Impacts on Crown land 12-33
12.4 Assessment of operational impacts 12-34
12.4.1 Property impacts 12-34
12.4.2 Land use impacts 12-34
12.4.3 Overshadowing 12-37
12.5 Management of impacts 12-38
13 Urban design and visual amenity 13-1
13.1 Assessment methodology 13-2
13.2 Existing environment 13-2
13.2.1 General landscape and visual character 13-2
13.2.2 Landscape character zones 13-3
13.2.3 Representative sensitive visual receivers 13-4
13.3 Assessment of construction impacts 13-26
13.3.1 Overview 13-26
13.3.2 Impacts on sensitive receivers 13-27
13.3.3 Construction lighting impacts 13-31
13.4 Assessment of operational impacts 13-33
13.4.1 Landscape character impacts 13-33
13.4.2 Visual receivers 13-33
13.4.3 Desired future character assessment 13-42
13.4.4 Urban design assessment 13-43
13.4.5 Parramatta Road Urban Transformation Program 13-47
13.5 Management of impacts 13-48
13.5.1 Urban design 13-48
13.5.2 Landscape character and visual amenity 13-48
14 Social and economic 14-1
14.1 Assessment methodology 14-1
14.1.1 Approach 14-2
14.1.2 Social impact assessment framework and rating 14-2
14.1.3 Economic multipliers 14-3
14.1.4 Study area 14-3
14.1.5 Community consultation 14-6
14.2 Existing environment 14-6
14.2.1 Study area existing environment 14-6
14.2.2 Precinct existing environment 14-14
14.2.3 Parramatta Road Urban Transformation Program 14-16
14.3 Assessment of construction impacts 14-17
14.3.1 Economic stimulus – construction expenditure and employment 14-17
14.3.2 Changes in amenity 14-18
14.3.3 Changes to accessibility 14-19
14.3.4 Property and household impacts 14-20
14.3.5 Social infrastructure 14-21
14.3.6 Business impacts 14-24
14.4 Assessment of operational impacts 14-24
14.4.1 Economic stimulus – operational expenditure and employment 14-25
14.4.2 Changes in amenity 14-25
14.4.3 Freight and efficiency 14-26
14.4.4 Acquisition 14-26
14.4.5 Changes in passing trade 14-26
14.4.6 Changes to accessibility 14-26
14.4.7 Social infrastructure 14-28
14.5 Assessment of cumulative impacts 14-29
14.6 Management of impacts 14-30
14.6.1 Ongoing stakeholder engagement 14-30
14.6.2 Environmental management measures 14-30
15 Soil and water quality 15-1
15.1 Assessment methodology 15-1
15.1.1 Overview 15-1
15.1.2 Legislation and policy framework 15-2
15.1.3 Water quality monitoring 15-4
15.2 Existing environment 15-4
15.2.1 Soils 15-4
15.2.2 Waterways and riparian zones 15-6
15.2.3 Sensitive receiving environments 15-8
15.2.4 Water quality 15-8
15.3 Assessment of construction impacts 15-10
15.3.1 Construction impacts on soils 15-10
15.3.2 Construction impacts on water quality 15-11
15.4 Assessment of operational impacts 15-14
15.4.1 Operational impacts to soils 15-14
15.4.2 Operational impacts to water quality 15-14
15.5 Management of impacts 15-16
15.5.1 Project design features that manage impacts 15-17
15.5.2 Environmental management measures 15-17
16 Contamination 16-1
16.1 Assessment methodology 16-1
16.1.1 Desktop review 16-1
16.1.2 Site inspection 16-2
16.1.3 Site investigations 16-2
16.1.4 Preliminary conceptual site model 16-2
16.1.5 Study area 16-10
16.2 Assessment criteria 16-10
16.3 Existing environment 16-11
16.3.1 Section 1: West of Homebush Bay Drive to Pomeroy Street 16-11
16.3.2 Section 2: Pomeroy Street to Ismay Avenue 16-13
16.3.3 Section 3: Ismay Avenue to Carrington Lane 16-13
16.3.4 Section 4: Carrington Lane to Broughton Street 16-15
16.3.5 Section 5: Broughton Street to Dobroyd Canal (Iron Cove Creek) 16-16
16.3.6 Section 6: Dobroyd Canal (Iron Cove Creek) to Bland Street (including Wattle Street) 16-18
16.3.7 Section 7: Bland Street to Orpington Street 16-19
16.4 Assessment of construction impacts 16-20
16.4.1 Potential contamination pathways 16-20
16.4.2 Acid sulfate soil impacts 16-23
16.4.3 Contamination resulting from the project 16-23
16.5 Assessment of operational impacts 16-23
16.6 Management of impacts 16-24
17 Flooding and drainage 17-1
17.1 Assessment methodology 17-1
17.1.1 Methodology overview 17-1
17.1.2 Policy and guidance 17-2
17.1.3 Study area and analysis 17-2
17.2 Existing environment 17-3
17.2.1 Catchment descriptions 17-3
17.2.2 Environmental conditions 17-8
17.2.3 Present day flooding conditions 17-8
17.3 Assessment of construction impacts 17-10
17.3.1 Flood risk to the project 17-10
17.3.2 Potential impacts of construction activities on flooding behaviour 17-13
17.4 Assessment of operational impacts 17-17
17.4.1 Flood risk to the project and impact on flooding behaviour 17-17
17.4.2 Potential impacts of future climate change 17-22
17.5 Management of impacts 17-23
17.5.1 Project design features that manage impacts 17-23
17.5.2 Environmental management measures 17-24
18 Groundwater 18-1
18.1 Assessment methodology 18-1
18.1.1 Overview 18-1
18.1.2 Ground and surface water monitoring 18-3
18.1.3 Policy framework 18-3
18.2 Existing environment 18-5
18.2.1 Drainage, topography and geology 18-5
18.2.2 Groundwater levels and movement 18-6
18.2.3 Groundwater quality 18-9
18.2.4 Groundwater dependent ecosystems 18-11
18.2.5 Groundwater users 18-11
18.3 Assessment of construction impacts 18-11
18.3.1 Groundwater inflow rates and recharge 18-11
18.3.2 Impact on groundwater quality and contamination 18-14
18.3.3 Ground movement 18-15
18.4 Assessment of operational impacts 18-16
18.4.1 Groundwater drawdown 18-16
18.4.2 Groundwater recharge change 18-20
18.4.3 Groundwater inflow rates and chemistry 18-20
18.4.4 Potential impact on groundwater dependent ecosystems 18-21
18.4.5 Impacts on other groundwater users 18-22
18.4.6 Impact on groundwater quality and contamination 18-22
18.4.7 Potential for acid sulfate soil drainage 18-23
18.4.8 Groundwater management, treatment and discharge 18-23
18.4.9 Summary of impacts having regard to the Aquifer Interference Policy 18-23
18.5 Management of impacts 18-25
18.5.1 Project design features that manage impacts 18-25
18.5.2 Environmental management measures 18-26
19 Non-Aboriginal heritage 19-1
19.1 Assessment methodology 19-1
19.1.1 Overview 19-1
19.1.2 Legislation and policy framework 19-2
19.1.3 Study area 19-2
19.1.4 Assessment of historical archaeological resources 19-3
19.1.5 Assessment of heritage impacts 19-11
19.2 Existing environment 19-12
19.2.1 Historical archaeology 19-12
19.2.2 Heritage items and conservation areas 19-18
19.3 Assessment of impacts 19-30
19.3.1 Historical archaeology 19-30
19.3.2 Heritage items and conservation areas 19-32
19.4 Management of impacts 19-43
20 Biodiversity 20-1
20.1 Assessment methodology 20-2
20.1.1 Overview 20-2
20.1.2 Desktop assessment 20-2
20.1.3 Likelihood of occurrence assessment 20-3
20.1.4 Field surveys 20-3
20.1.5 Legislation and policy framework 20-4
20.2 Existing environment 20-5
20.2.1 Vegetation communities 20-5
20.2.2 Flora species and populations 20-6
20.2.3 Fauna species and populations 20-12
20.2.4 Migratory species 20-13
20.3 Assessment of construction impacts 20-14
20.3.1 Direct impacts 20-14
20.3.2 Indirect impacts 20-17
20.4 Assessment of operational impacts 20-19
20.5 Assessment of cumulative impacts 20-20
20.6 Management of impacts 20-20
20.6.1 Biodiversity offsets 20-22
21 Greenhouse gas 21-1
21.1 Assessment methodology 21-1
21.1.1 Greenhouse gas assessment boundary 21-2
21.2 Existing environment 21-3
21.2.1 Policy setting 21-3
21.2.2 GHG emissions reporting 21-3
21.3 Assessment of construction impacts 21-4
21.4 Assessment of operational impacts 21-5
21.4.1 Emissions from road infrastructure operation 21-6
21.4.2 Emissions from vehicles during operation 21-6
21.5 Combined GHG emissions 21-7
21.6 Management of impacts 21-9
22 Aboriginal heritage 22-1
22.1 Assessment methodology 22-1
22.1.1 Overview 22-1
22.1.2 Legislation and policy framework 22-2
22.2 Study area 22-3
22.3 Existing environment 22-3
22.3.1 Landscape context 22-3
22.3.2 Ethnographic and archaeological context 22-3
22.3.3 Site predictions 22-4
22.3.4 Aboriginal Heritage Information Management System 22-4
22.3.5 Survey results 22-4
22.4 Assessment of potential impacts 22-6
22.5 Environmental management measures 22-6
23 Resource use and waste minimisation 23-1
23.1 Assessment methodology 23-1
23.2 Legislative framework 23-1
23.3 Assessment of construction impacts 23-2
23.3.1 Construction resource consumption 23-2
23.3.2 Construction waste management 23-3
23.4 Assessment of operational impacts 23-6
23.4.1 Operational resource consumption 23-6
23.4.2 Operational waste management 23-6
23.5 Environmental management measures 23-7
24 Climate change risk and adaptation 24-1
24.1 Assessment methodology 24-1
24.1.1 Pre-screening 24-2
24.1.2 Screening 24-2
24.1.3 Detailed risk assessment 24-2
24.1.4 Risk evaluation 24-3
24.1.5 Adaptation (risk treatment) 24-3
24.2 Existing environment 24-3
24.2.1 Future climate 24-4
24.3 Assessment of construction impacts 24-6
24.4 Assessment of operational impacts 24-6
24.4.1 Risk evaluation 24-6
24.5 Management of impacts 24-7
25 Hazards and risk 25-1
25.1 Assessment of construction risks 25-1
25.1.1 Storage and handling of dangerous goods and hazardous substances 25-1
25.1.2 Transport of dangerous goods and hazardous substances 25-2
25.1.3 Underground services 25-3
25.1.4 Risk of tunnel collapse 25-3
25.2 Assessment of operational risks 25-3
25.2.1 Storage and handling of dangerous goods and hazardous substances 25-4
25.2.2 Transport of dangerous goods and hazardous substances 25-4
25.2.3 Incidents in the tunnels 25-5
25.2.4 Incidents on surface roads 25-6
25.3 Environmental management measures 25-6
26 Cumulative impacts 26-1
26.1 Nature of cumulative impacts 26-1
26.2 Assessment methodology 26-2
26.3 Existing environment 26-2
26.3.1 WestConnex 26-2
26.3.2 Other nearby developments 26-4
26.4 Cumulative impacts of WestConnex component projects 26-7
26.4.1 Traffic and transport 26-7
26.4.2 Air quality 26-8
26.4.3 Noise and vibration 26-8
26.4.4 Economic impacts 26-9
26.4.5 Social impacts 26-10
26.4.6 Non-Aboriginal heritage 26-10
26.4.7 Biodiversity 26-10
26.5 Cumulative impacts of other nearby developments 26-10
26.5.1 Traffic and transport 26-11
26.5.2 Amenity impacts 26-11
26.6 Management of impacts 26-12
27 Sustainability 27-1
27.1 What is sustainability? 27-1
27.2 WestConnex Sustainability Strategy 27-1
27.3 Sustainability management measures 27-2
27.4 Ecologically sustainable development 27-10
27.4.1 Precautionary principle 27-10
27.4.2 Inter-generational equity 27-10
27.4.3 Conservation of biological diversity and ecological integrity 27-11
27.4.4 Improved valuation and pricing and incentive mechanisms 27-11
28 Environmental risk analysis 28-1
28.1 Overview 28-1
28.2 Preliminary environmental assessment 28-2
28.3 Assessment of key issues identified in the Secretary’s environmental assessment requirements 28-2
28.4 Risk analysis summary 28-3
29 Summary of environmental management measures 29-1
29.1 Environmental management plans (or systems) 29-1
29.2 Summary of safeguards and management measures 29-1
30 Project justification and conclusion 30-1
30.1 Justification 30-1
30.1.1 Summary of strategic need and justification 30-1
30.1.2 Achieving project objectives 30-2
30.2 Objectives of the Environmental Planning and Assessment Act (1979) 30-4
30.3 Conclusion 30-6