Note explaining Automobile dependence, peak car use and induced traffic

Automobile Dependence

The situation where our choices and ability to move around the city are constrained by our access to a car, and where ‘use of an automobile [becomes] not so much a choice but a necessity’ (Newman & Kenworthy, 1999, p. 32).
Good sources for more information on automobile dependence’s causes and implications for cities are Newman and Kenworthy’s (1989) book Cities and automobile dependence and the website http://www.vtpi.org/tdm/tdm100.htm. Continue reading

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Project development and alternatives: WestConnex M4 East Environmental Impact Statement

WestConnex M4 East Environmental Impact Statement

September 2015

Prepared for WestConnex Delivery Authority
Prepared by AECOM Australia Pty Ltd, GHD Pty Ltd

4 Project development and alternatives

This chapter describes the alternatives that were considered as part of the development process for the M4 East project (the project), and explains how and why the project was selected as the preferred option. Design options and refinements for particular elements of the project are also addressed. Continue reading

Main Volume 1A Part 1

Main Volume 1A Part 1 (pdf)

Contents Pages
Executive summary
Certification
Glossary and abbreviations
1 Introduction 1-1
1.1 Project overview 1-1
1.2 Project location 1-4
1.3 Project features 1-4
1.4 Benefits of the project 1-7
1.5 Purpose of this environmental impact statement 1-8
1.6 Structure of this environmental impact statement 1-8
1.7 Directions used in this environmental impact statement 1-9
2 Assessment process 2-1
2.1 Approval framework 2-1
2.1.1 Environmental Planning and Assessment Act 1979 2-1
2.1.2 Environmental Planning and Assessment Regulation 2000 2-1
2.2 Environmental planning instruments 2-3
2.2.1 State environmental planning policies 2-3
2.2.2 Local environmental plans 2-3
2.3 Other legislation 2-4
2.3.1 NSW legislation 2-4
2.3.2 Commonwealth legislation 2-5
3 Strategic context and project need 3-1
3.1 Strategic planning and policy framework 3-1
3.1.1 NSW 2021: A Plan to Make NSW Number One 3-1
3.1.2 State Infrastructure Strategy 3-2
3.1.3 NSW Long Term Transport Master Plan 3-3
3.1.4 Mode specific transport strategies 3-4
3.1.5 A Plan for Growing Sydney 3-6
3.1.6 NSW Freight and Ports Strategy 3-8
3.1.7 Parramatta Road Urban Transformation Program 3-8
3.1.8 WestConnex Business Case 3-9
3.1.9 Our Cities Our Future – A National Urban Policy 3-10
3.1.10 Alignment with other national strategic planning documents 3-11
3.2 Why the project is needed 3-11
3.2.1 Regional context 3-11
3.2.2 Existing road network conditions 3-12
3.2.3 Job creation in Western Sydney 3-13
3.2.4 Freight, commercial and business services 3-14
3.2.5 Parramatta Road urban renewal 3-15
3.2.6 Transport improvements in the Parramatta Road corridor 3-15
3.3 Project objectives 3-16
3.4 Summary 3-17
4 Project development and alternatives 4-1
4.1 History of the M4 East and WestConnex 4-1
4.1.2 M5 East Motorway 4-3
4.1.3 Connection between the M4 and M5 East 4-3
4.1.4 WestConnex and M4 East 4-3
4.2 Strategic alternatives 4-4
4.2.1 Alternative 1 – Base case or ‘do nothing/do minimum’ 4-5
4.2.2 Alternative 2 – Improvements to the existing arterial road network 4-5
4.2.3 Alternative 3 – Investment in public transport and rail freight improvements 4-7
4.2.4 Alternative 4 – Demand management 4-10
4.2.5 Alternative 5 – Extension of the M4 as part of the WestConnex scheme 4-10
4.2.6 Preferred strategic alternative 4-11
4.3 Motorway options 4-12
4.3.1 Earlier options development 4-12
4.3.2 Tunnel corridor options 4-15
4.3.3 Number of lanes within tunnels 4-15
4.3.4 Preferred motorway option 4-16
4.4 Interchange options 4-16
4.4.1 Western tunnel portals 4-16
4.4.2 M4 westbound access options 4-19
4.4.3 Concord interchange 4-20
4.4.4 Wattle Street (City West Link) interchange 4-23
4.4.5 Parramatta Road interchange 4-25
4.5 Design development of ancillary facilities 4-27
4.5.1 Ventilation system design 4-27
4.5.2 Ventilation facility locations 4-29
4.5.3 Emergency smoke exhaust facility 4-31
4.5.4 Fresh air supply facility 4-31
4.5.5 Motorway control centre 4-32
4.6 Construction methodology development 4-33
4.6.1 Tunnel construction methods 4-33
4.6.2 Spoil disposal 4-34
5 Project description 5-1
5.1 The project 5-2
5.2 Design criteria 5-5
5.2.1 Design standards 5-5
5.2.2 Urban design principles and objectives 5-5
5.2.3 Landscape framework 5-6
5.3 Project footprint 5-6
5.4 Tunnels (continues in part 2) 5-7

Main Volume 1A Part 2

Main Volume 1A Part 2 (pdf)

Contents Pages
5.4 Tunnels (continued from part 1) 5-14
5.5 Road treatments at intersections and interchanges 5-20
5.5.1 Homebush Bay Drive interchange 5-20
5.5.2 Powells Creek M4 on-ramp 5-22
5.5.3 Concord Road interchange 5-22
5.5.4 Wattle Street (City West Link) interchange 5-25
5.5.5 Parramatta Road interchange 5-29
5.6 Ventilation system 5-31
5.6.1 Overview 5-31
5.6.2 Ventilation facilities 5-31
5.6.3 Operating modes 5-35
5.7 Other ancillary facilities 5-36
5.7.1 Motorway operations complex 5-36
5.7.2 Incident response centre 5-38
5.7.3 Emergency and incident management facilities 5-38
5.8 Other project elements 5-40
5.8.1 Bridges 5-40
5.8.2 Cuttings and embankments 5-43
5.8.3 Drainage and operational water quality 5-43
5.8.4 Lighting, roadside furniture and signage 5-45
5.8.5 Tolling gantries, communication and control systems 5-46
5.8.6 Noise barriers and low noise pavement 5-46
5.8.7 Provision for smart motorway infrastructure 5-51
5.9 Surface road network changes 5-51
5.9.1 Changes to the existing road network 5-51
5.9.2 Pedestrian and cyclist facilities 5-52
5.9.3 Public transport (continues in part 3) 5-53

Main Volume 1A Part 3

Main Volume 1A Part 3 (pdf)

Contents Pages
5.9.3 Public transport (continued from part 2) 5-54
5.10 Utility services 5-55
5.10.1 Electricity 5-55
5.10.2 Water 5-56
5.11 Property access and acquisition 5-57
6 Construction work 6-1
6.1 Construction strategy 6-2
6.2 Construction program 6-2
6.3 Construction footprint 6-3
6.4 Construction methodology 6-12
6.4.1 Enabling works 6-13
6.4.2 Tunnelling 6-13
6.4.3 Surface earthworks and structures 6-14
6.4.4 Bridge works 6-15
6.4.5 Drainage 6-16
6.4.6 Pavement 6-17
6.4.7 Operational ancillary facilities 6-17

Main Volume 1A Part 4

Main Volume 1A Part 4 (pdf)

Contents Pages
6.5 Construction ancillary facilities 6-19
6.5.1 Overview 6-19
6.5.2 Homebush Bay Drive civil site (C1) 6-21
6.5.3 Pomeroy Street civil site (C2) 6-22
6.5.4 Underwood Road civil and tunnel site (C3) 6-25
6.5.5 Powells Creek civil site (C4) 6-27
6.5.6 Concord Road civil and tunnel site (C5) 6-29
6.5.7 Cintra Park tunnel site (C6) 6-31
6.5.8 Northcote Street tunnel site (C7) 6-34
6.5.9 Eastern ventilation facility site (C8) 6-36
6.5.10 Wattle Street and Walker Avenue civil site (C9) 6-38
6.5.11 Parramatta Road civil site (C10) 6-40
6.6 Traffic management and access 6-42
6.6.1 Changes to local roads 6-42
6.6.2 Changes to pedestrian and cycle routes 6-44
6.6.3 Changes to bus stops 6-47
6.6.4 Access routes and vehicle numbers 6-47
6.6.5 Construction workforce parking 6-48
6.7 Construction workforce numbers and work hours 6-50
6.7.1 Construction workforce 6-50
6.7.2 Construction work hours 6-51
6.8 Plant and equipment 6-53
6.9 Spoil and waste management 6-55
6.9.1 Spoil and waste generation 6-55
6.9.2 Spoil disposal hierarchy 6-56
6.9.3 Spoil reuse and disposal sites 6-56
6.9.4 Spoil haulage routes 6-57
6.9.5 Spoil management strategy 6-62
6.10 Construction resource use 6-63
6.10.1 Construction materials 6-63
6.10.2 Construction energy use 6-63
6.10.3 Construction water use and management 6-64